23 June 1912 – 7 June 1954, Turing was a British mathematician, logician, cryptanalyst, and computer scientist. He was highly influential in the development of computer science, providing a formalization of the concepts of "algorithm" and "computation" with his own machine called the Turing machine. Turing is widely considered to be the father of computer science and artificial intelligence. His work created the foundation for computer based technology as we know it today.
During World War II, Turing worked for the Government Code and Cypher School (GCCS) at Bletchley Park, Britain's code breaking centre. For a time he was head of Hut 8, the section responsible for German naval cryptanalysis. He devised a number of techniques for breaking German ciphers, including the method of the bombe, an electromechanical machine that could find settings for the German Enigma code machine.
He is widely known for his Turing Test, which tests a machine's ability to exhibit intelligent behavior.